The leading cause of both hospitalization and readmission amongst older adults

From an epidemiological perspective, Heart Failure imposes a relevant burden, with high prevalence and mortality rates. It has been estimated that there were over 37.7 million cases worldwide in 2016, and this number is expected to increase continuously during the next few decades.
After diagnosis, those patients are hospitalized once every year, on average, although not for cardiovascular reasons most times and the HF-related costs are particularly heavy, with an estimated yearly expenditure of $108 billion globally.

Critical actions

  • LVEF usage for HF classification
  • Pharmacological prognosis optimization by changing therapeutics


  1. 1st Medical consultation
  2. Follow-up consultation
  3. Treatment
  4. Follow-up
  5. Referral
  6. Patient education
  7. Emergency
  8. Inpatient


  • McDonagh, Theresa A. et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: Developed by the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) With the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. European heart journal, 1-128.

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Atrial Fibrillation

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