A 77-year-old female patient with diagnosed heart failure is coming to her general practitioner. She remains symptomatic and the most recent echocardiogram shows a left ejection fraction just under 35%.
Previous medical history: 4 months earlier she attended her general practitioner because of fatigue, shortness of breath, orthopnoea, and lower limbs oedema, having been diagnosed of heart failure. She also has type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
Heart Failure diagnosis and classification
Heart Failure according to the latest ESC guidelines
McDonagh, Theresa A. et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: Developed by the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) With the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. European heart journal, 1-128.